PHONE AMPLIFIER FOR HEARING IMPAIRED REVIEWS



Phone Amplifier For Hearing Impaired Reviews

4 Hidden iPhone Tricks For Individuals With Hearing. medca Digital Hearing Amplifier - Personal Hearing Enhancement Sound Amplifier Pair, Rechargeable Digital Hearing Amplifier with All-D. Sold by TheSavingsMart . $40.55 $36.84. MegFong MF-02B Large Button Phone for Elderly Senior Amplified Corded Phone with Speakerphone for Hearing Impaired. Sold by GrowKart. $37.97 $34.50. TelPal Big Button Corded Phone for Elderly Caller ID Landline Telephone, They are often designed to look like hearing aids, but you can also buy models that look like Bluetooth phone devices or hand-held devices with headphones. How Is a Hearing Amplifier Different than a Hearing Aid? There is a lot of confusion over what makes a make a personal sound amplifier different from a hearing aid. Hearing aids and the.

Telephone amplifiers Action on Hearing Loss

Best iPhone Hearing Aid Apps for 2020 Health Tech Tech.co. The Serene Portable Phone Amplifier is the perfect solution for the hard of hearing or anyone wanting a boost in volume on the telephone. This phone amplifier comes with easily adjusted straps onto any standard, cordless or pay phone handset In fact; it amplifies incoming sound up to 40 times (30+ dB)., Google releases two new accessibility apps for hearing-impaired Android users Sound Amplifier and Live Transcribe may make life easier for the disabled..

03/06/2018 · ‎Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about Hearing Aid - Sound Amplifier. Download Hearing Aid - Sound Amplifier and enjoy it on your iPhone… Stream Loud Ringtones for Hearing Impaired, a playlist by HDELKO from desktop or your mobile device

We supply phones made by leading global brands Geemarc, Doro and Amplicomms. Manufacturers who are all committed to the provision of amplified products. All phones include a full manufacturer's warranty of 12 - 24 months. Read more on our blog: The Best Amplified Phones for Seniors; Best Phone for the Hard of Hearing. Doro Phones medca Digital Hearing Amplifier - Personal Hearing Enhancement Sound Amplifier Pair, Rechargeable Digital Hearing Amplifier with All-D. Sold by TheSavingsMart . $40.55 $36.84. MegFong MF-02B Large Button Phone for Elderly Senior Amplified Corded Phone with Speakerphone for Hearing Impaired. Sold by GrowKart. $37.97 $34.50. TelPal Big Button Corded Phone for Elderly Caller ID Landline Telephone

Additionally you get direct audio from the phone or music into your hearing aids. Resound was the first manufacturer to create a Made for iPhone Hearing Device (MiFi) and they continue to listen to the feedback of users and work with Apple to make the App better. The only thing I wish they did at this point was have a button to turn the phone 22/10/2012 · ExSilent is a Dutch manufacturer of hearing aids, operating worldwide. The company’s goal is to lower the barrier for people who could use a hearing aid because of hearing loss, but who are not ready for one yet. The HearYouNow app is a free amplification tool that uses state of the art ExSilent technology. It is your personal sound amplifier

This HA40 Clarity brand in-line telephone amplifier is a battery-powered phone amplifier with slide controls for both volume and tone, providing up to 40 decibels of amplification for telephone users with hearing loss. The tone selector amplifies specific frequencies for optimum speech clarity and distinction between similar sounding words They are often designed to look like hearing aids, but you can also buy models that look like Bluetooth phone devices or hand-held devices with headphones. How Is a Hearing Amplifier Different than a Hearing Aid? There is a lot of confusion over what makes a make a personal sound amplifier different from a hearing aid. Hearing aids and the

22/10/2012 · ExSilent is a Dutch manufacturer of hearing aids, operating worldwide. The company’s goal is to lower the barrier for people who could use a hearing aid because of hearing loss, but who are not ready for one yet. The HearYouNow app is a free amplification tool that uses state of the art ExSilent technology. It is your personal sound amplifier Your phone is your main link to your family and loved ones, so when it rings, you need to be able to take notice and make contact. For the hearing impaired, this can be difficult, as standard ringer and receiver volumes are often too low and are not compatible for use with hearing aids.

22/10/2012 · ExSilent is a Dutch manufacturer of hearing aids, operating worldwide. The company’s goal is to lower the barrier for people who could use a hearing aid because of hearing loss, but who are not ready for one yet. The HearYouNow app is a free amplification tool that uses state of the art ExSilent technology. It is your personal sound amplifier But instead of trying to make phones more accessible, Google’s Accessibility Team has decided to try and make the world more accessible. The Live Transcribe and Sound Amplifier apps are meant to change how users with hearing impairment interact with their environment, and these apps could change the way that many people use their phones.

How to Use Your iPhone as a Hearing Aid Snapguide. 5. You can then use your phone's volume control or speech amplifier as normal. Finding the right phone. You really do need to use the right kind of phone for your hearing aid. Look for one that says it’s hearing aid compatible or has the inductive loop icon. BT has a wide range of phones that are ideal for people with hearing loss. Handy, Hearing impaired phones... Amplified phones you may benefit from using a telephone amplifier, which is a separate device that increases the volume of a regular landline or mobile phone. In-line amplifiers . Compatible with many types of phone models, in-line telephone amplifiers are best for people with moderate to severe hearing loss. These devices increase sound by up to 40 decibels, and.

Buy Jitterbug SMART Amplified Smartphone Online for Seniors

phone amplifier for hearing impaired reviews

What iPhone apps are good for people with hearing loss. 03/06/2018 · ‎Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about Hearing Aid - Sound Amplifier. Download Hearing Aid - Sound Amplifier and enjoy it on your iPhone…, This HA40 Clarity brand in-line telephone amplifier is a battery-powered phone amplifier with slide controls for both volume and tone, providing up to 40 decibels of amplification for telephone users with hearing loss. The tone selector amplifies specific frequencies for optimum speech clarity and distinction between similar sounding words.

How Telephone Amplifiers Work HowStuffWorks. 22/10/2012 · ExSilent is a Dutch manufacturer of hearing aids, operating worldwide. The company’s goal is to lower the barrier for people who could use a hearing aid because of hearing loss, but who are not ready for one yet. The HearYouNow app is a free amplification tool that uses state of the art ExSilent technology. It is your personal sound amplifier, They are often designed to look like hearing aids, but you can also buy models that look like Bluetooth phone devices or hand-held devices with headphones. How Is a Hearing Amplifier Different than a Hearing Aid? There is a lot of confusion over what makes a make a personal sound amplifier different from a hearing aid. Hearing aids and the.

What iPhone apps are good for people with hearing loss

phone amplifier for hearing impaired reviews

Amazon.com ClearSounds WIL95 UltraClear Portable. Amazon's Choice for telephone amplifier for hearing impaired Trimline Corded Phone - Phones for Seniors - Phone for Hearing impaired - Black - Retro Novelty Telephone - an Improved Version of The Princess Phones in 1965 - Style Big Button In-line telephone amplifiers. These amplifiers are for use with landline corded telephones, they connect between the telephone base unit and the handset and make incoming speech louder. They are not designed for use with a hearing aid set to the 'T' setting. Thus they may help you hear your caller if you are hard of hearing and do not use a.

phone amplifier for hearing impaired reviews

  • How Telephone Amplifiers Work HowStuffWorks
  • Choosing the right phone Deafness Forum of Australia
  • In-line telephone amplifiers Living made easy

  • If you use a hearing aid on the microphone setting, the hearing aid will 'compress' the amplified, louder sound from the earpiece and undo what you are trying to achieve. If you do not have a telecoil function in your aid, then you need to remove the aid and just use the in-line telephone amplifier alone. These compact, powerful ringers are compatible with any phone, corded or cordless. Just as universal are its uses. These ringers can be used for a hard-of-hearing person in their home or even a noisy warehouse where it’s important to know when the phone rings.

    Shopping for a phone for the hard of hearing can be a confusing experience with many factors to consider. If you are unsure of what type of phone will best suit your needs, please read on because we have put together a guide to help you find what will work best for you or someone you are shopping for. Hear World Communications. 21004 Brooke Knolls Rd Laytonsville, MD 20882 Voice/TTY: (866) 889-4872. Hear World Communications is a leading distributor of assistive technology devices for deaf, hard of hearing, hearing impaired, and individuals with hearing loss.

    Hear World Communications. 21004 Brooke Knolls Rd Laytonsville, MD 20882 Voice/TTY: (866) 889-4872. Hear World Communications is a leading distributor of assistive technology devices for deaf, hard of hearing, hearing impaired, and individuals with hearing loss. If you ever need a little extra volume. Here's how to use your iPhone as a hearing aid or sound amplifier. The app I use is called Vonbruno Hearing Aid ($.99). Vonbruno make a number of microphone apps and they all do the same thing. Ranging from .99 to $4.99. Trust me, the .99 one works just as well.

    In-line telephone amplifiers. These amplifiers are for use with landline corded telephones, they connect between the telephone base unit and the handset and make incoming speech louder. They are not designed for use with a hearing aid set to the 'T' setting. Thus they may help you hear your caller if you are hard of hearing and do not use a Your phone is your main link to your family and loved ones, so when it rings, you need to be able to take notice and make contact. For the hearing impaired, this can be difficult, as standard ringer and receiver volumes are often too low and are not compatible for use with hearing aids.

    The Serene Portable Phone Amplifier is the perfect solution for the hard of hearing or anyone wanting a boost in volume on the telephone. This phone amplifier comes with easily adjusted straps onto any standard, cordless or pay phone handset In fact; it amplifies incoming sound up to 40 times (30+ dB). The VTech CS6719 can be bought for under $50 for 2 sets. In addition to being cheap, due to durability and high quality, it is one of the best cordless phones for senior citizens and pensioners in 2020. But, we do not recommend this landline telephone set for seniors with severe hearing loss. If affordability is the main concern, this is the

    phone amplifier for hearing impaired reviews

    phones have been specially adapted for use by people with a hearing loss to suit their hearing aids or cochlear implant. Some phones, particularly mobile phones, have text-based programs that can provide access to the phone for people who are Deaf or have a hearing impairment who cannot access sound on the phone. The choices are many. There are Amazon's Choice for telephone amplifier for hearing impaired Trimline Corded Phone - Phones for Seniors - Phone for Hearing impaired - Black - Retro Novelty Telephone - an Improved Version of The Princess Phones in 1965 - Style Big Button

    Buy Jitterbug SMART Amplified Smartphone Online for Seniors

    phone amplifier for hearing impaired reviews

    Choosing the right phone Deafness Forum of Australia. These types of phones for hearing impaired offer people a visual way to engage in conversation. A person listens to clear, amplified sounds while also reading the text. It is important to consider the quality of the technology in the phone. Read reviews about hearing impaired phones to make sure the call clarity is high, the amplification is, If you've set the volume on your phone as high as it'll go and voices still sound faint, you may want to consider a device for hearing-impaired telephones called a phone amplifier. Several options are available, including units that attach to a phone line, portable amplifier units and dedicated amplifier telephones, as well as cell phone.

    ‎Hearing Aid Sound Amplifier on the App Store

    ‎HearYouNow – Your personal sound amplifier on the App Store. 22/10/2012 · ExSilent is a Dutch manufacturer of hearing aids, operating worldwide. The company’s goal is to lower the barrier for people who could use a hearing aid because of hearing loss, but who are not ready for one yet. The HearYouNow app is a free amplification tool that uses state of the art ExSilent technology. It is your personal sound amplifier, If you use a hearing aid on the microphone setting, the hearing aid will 'compress' the amplified, louder sound from the earpiece and undo what you are trying to achieve. If you do not have a telecoil function in your aid, then you need to remove the aid and just use the in-line telephone amplifier alone..

    Amazon's Choice for telephone amplifier for hearing impaired Trimline Corded Phone - Phones for Seniors - Phone for Hearing impaired - Black - Retro Novelty Telephone - an Improved Version of The Princess Phones in 1965 - Style Big Button Fortunately, there are some iOS features that can help increase the iPhone's usability for individuals with hearing impairments, and Apple itself wants people to know about them. That's not to say

    We supply phones made by leading global brands Geemarc, Doro and Amplicomms. Manufacturers who are all committed to the provision of amplified products. All phones include a full manufacturer's warranty of 12 - 24 months. Read more on our blog: The Best Amplified Phones for Seniors; Best Phone for the Hard of Hearing. Doro Phones Amazon's Choice for telephone amplifier for hearing impaired Trimline Corded Phone - Phones for Seniors - Phone for Hearing impaired - Black - Retro Novelty Telephone - an Improved Version of The Princess Phones in 1965 - Style Big Button

    If you use a hearing aid on the microphone setting, the hearing aid will 'compress' the amplified, louder sound from the earpiece and undo what you are trying to achieve. If you do not have a telecoil function in your aid, then you need to remove the aid and just use the in-line telephone amplifier alone. medca Digital Hearing Amplifier - Personal Hearing Enhancement Sound Amplifier Pair, Rechargeable Digital Hearing Amplifier with All-D. Sold by TheSavingsMart . $40.55 $36.84. MegFong MF-02B Large Button Phone for Elderly Senior Amplified Corded Phone with Speakerphone for Hearing Impaired. Sold by GrowKart. $37.97 $34.50. TelPal Big Button Corded Phone for Elderly Caller ID Landline Telephone

    If you use a hearing aid on the microphone setting, the hearing aid will 'compress' the amplified, louder sound from the earpiece and undo what you are trying to achieve. If you do not have a telecoil function in your aid, then you need to remove the aid and just use the in-line telephone amplifier alone. Hear World Communications. 21004 Brooke Knolls Rd Laytonsville, MD 20882 Voice/TTY: (866) 889-4872. Hear World Communications is a leading distributor of assistive technology devices for deaf, hard of hearing, hearing impaired, and individuals with hearing loss.

    22/10/2018 · People with severe hearing loss benefit from amplified phones that come with a flashing light which activates during an incoming call. Amplified phones are designed with the specific struggles of hearing impaired individuals in mind. People who have a difficult time hearing often have to ask the person on the other end of the phone to speak louder. 22/10/2012 · ExSilent is a Dutch manufacturer of hearing aids, operating worldwide. The company’s goal is to lower the barrier for people who could use a hearing aid because of hearing loss, but who are not ready for one yet. The HearYouNow app is a free amplification tool that uses state of the art ExSilent technology. It is your personal sound amplifier

    Find amplified telephone accessories that increase the call volume output of telephones so people who are hard of hearing can hear better on the telephone. phones have been specially adapted for use by people with a hearing loss to suit their hearing aids or cochlear implant. Some phones, particularly mobile phones, have text-based programs that can provide access to the phone for people who are Deaf or have a hearing impairment who cannot access sound on the phone. The choices are many. There are

    Stream Loud Ringtones for Hearing Impaired, a playlist by HDELKO from desktop or your mobile device 05/07/2017 · I have a serious hearing loss and wear hearing aids which don't meet my needs in answering the land line telephone in a busy retail environment. This amplifier has totally changed my work environment from stressful to relaxed from day one. It is so good that other coworkers (not hearing impaired) have mentioned that it is like having a brand new digital phone rather than an older analog …

    Amazon's Choice for telephone amplifier for hearing impaired Trimline Corded Phone - Phones for Seniors - Phone for Hearing impaired - Black - Retro Novelty Telephone - an Improved Version of The Princess Phones in 1965 - Style Big Button Shopping for a phone for the hard of hearing can be a confusing experience with many factors to consider. If you are unsure of what type of phone will best suit your needs, please read on because we have put together a guide to help you find what will work best for you or someone you are shopping for.

    But instead of trying to make phones more accessible, Google’s Accessibility Team has decided to try and make the world more accessible. The Live Transcribe and Sound Amplifier apps are meant to change how users with hearing impairment interact with their environment, and these apps could change the way that many people use their phones. Telephone equipment for users who are deaf or with hearing loss This section includes a range of telephones and accessories designed for use by individuals who are deaf, or have hearing loss. This includes telephones and accessories to amplify or visually represent either the caller's speech, or the phone …

    Google releases two new accessibility apps for hearing-impaired Android users Sound Amplifier and Live Transcribe may make life easier for the disabled. 5 Best Cordless Phones for Hearing Impaired. Here are our 5 best picks for cordless phones for hearing impaired persons review. They all come with different features that make communication with a hearing-impaired person more user-friendly and less of a hassle. 1. AT&T TL96273 DECT 6.0 Expandable Cordless Phone

    Find amplified telephone accessories that increase the call volume output of telephones so people who are hard of hearing can hear better on the telephone. This HA40 Clarity brand in-line telephone amplifier is a battery-powered phone amplifier with slide controls for both volume and tone, providing up to 40 decibels of amplification for telephone users with hearing loss. The tone selector amplifies specific frequencies for optimum speech clarity and distinction between similar sounding words

    Amplified phones help those with hearing loss

    phone amplifier for hearing impaired reviews

    Buy Cell Phone Amplifiers Online hearworldusa.com. These types of phones for hearing impaired offer people a visual way to engage in conversation. A person listens to clear, amplified sounds while also reading the text. It is important to consider the quality of the technology in the phone. Read reviews about hearing impaired phones to make sure the call clarity is high, the amplification is, 13/11/2018 · Best iPhone Hearing Aid Apps. In today’s market, all major hearing aid manufacturers will offer an iPhone hearing aid app to accompany their physical product..

    Hearing Impaired Earphones Headphones & Headsets

    phone amplifier for hearing impaired reviews

    4 Hidden iPhone Tricks For Individuals With Hearing. 05/07/2017 · I have a serious hearing loss and wear hearing aids which don't meet my needs in answering the land line telephone in a busy retail environment. This amplifier has totally changed my work environment from stressful to relaxed from day one. It is so good that other coworkers (not hearing impaired) have mentioned that it is like having a brand new digital phone rather than an older analog … These types of phones for hearing impaired offer people a visual way to engage in conversation. A person listens to clear, amplified sounds while also reading the text. It is important to consider the quality of the technology in the phone. Read reviews about hearing impaired phones to make sure the call clarity is high, the amplification is.

    phone amplifier for hearing impaired reviews


    But instead of trying to make phones more accessible, Google’s Accessibility Team has decided to try and make the world more accessible. The Live Transcribe and Sound Amplifier apps are meant to change how users with hearing impairment interact with their environment, and these apps could change the way that many people use their phones. Hearing impaired earphones, also known as hearing impaired headphones, are a personal sound amplifying device worn on the head and covering the ears, set inside the ears, or placed in front of the ears to assist hearing-impaired individuals by enhancing their hearing through increasing the volume of sounds and spoken words.Hearing impaired earphones are often used to boost the sounds of the

    Google releases two new accessibility apps for hearing-impaired Android users Sound Amplifier and Live Transcribe may make life easier for the disabled. This HA40 Clarity brand in-line telephone amplifier is a battery-powered phone amplifier with slide controls for both volume and tone, providing up to 40 decibels of amplification for telephone users with hearing loss. The tone selector amplifies specific frequencies for optimum speech clarity and distinction between similar sounding words

    If you've set the volume on your phone as high as it'll go and voices still sound faint, you may want to consider a device for hearing-impaired telephones called a phone amplifier. Several options are available, including units that attach to a phone line, portable amplifier units and dedicated amplifier telephones, as well as cell phone The 10" screen is great. The captioning is provided by the FCC for hearing impaired people and is free after you contact them and register the device. by the internet or by phone. This phone has many features such as saving your last conversation's captions for your review. If you are hearing impaired buy it. It will be the best $100 you have

    If you ever need a little extra volume. Here's how to use your iPhone as a hearing aid or sound amplifier. The app I use is called Vonbruno Hearing Aid ($.99). Vonbruno make a number of microphone apps and they all do the same thing. Ranging from .99 to $4.99. Trust me, the .99 one works just as well. Hear World Communications. 21004 Brooke Knolls Rd Laytonsville, MD 20882 Voice/TTY: (866) 889-4872. Hear World Communications is a leading distributor of assistive technology devices for deaf, hard of hearing, hearing impaired, and individuals with hearing loss.

    If you ever need a little extra volume. Here's how to use your iPhone as a hearing aid or sound amplifier. The app I use is called Vonbruno Hearing Aid ($.99). Vonbruno make a number of microphone apps and they all do the same thing. Ranging from .99 to $4.99. Trust me, the .99 one works just as well. 03/06/2018 · ‎Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about Hearing Aid - Sound Amplifier. Download Hearing Aid - Sound Amplifier and enjoy it on your iPhone…

    They are often designed to look like hearing aids, but you can also buy models that look like Bluetooth phone devices or hand-held devices with headphones. How Is a Hearing Amplifier Different than a Hearing Aid? There is a lot of confusion over what makes a make a personal sound amplifier different from a hearing aid. Hearing aids and the 5 Best Cordless Phones for Hearing Impaired. Here are our 5 best picks for cordless phones for hearing impaired persons review. They all come with different features that make communication with a hearing-impaired person more user-friendly and less of a hassle. 1. AT&T TL96273 DECT 6.0 Expandable Cordless Phone

    If you ever need a little extra volume. Here's how to use your iPhone as a hearing aid or sound amplifier. The app I use is called Vonbruno Hearing Aid ($.99). Vonbruno make a number of microphone apps and they all do the same thing. Ranging from .99 to $4.99. Trust me, the .99 one works just as well. These types of phones for hearing impaired offer people a visual way to engage in conversation. A person listens to clear, amplified sounds while also reading the text. It is important to consider the quality of the technology in the phone. Read reviews about hearing impaired phones to make sure the call clarity is high, the amplification is

    22/10/2012 · ExSilent is a Dutch manufacturer of hearing aids, operating worldwide. The company’s goal is to lower the barrier for people who could use a hearing aid because of hearing loss, but who are not ready for one yet. The HearYouNow app is a free amplification tool that uses state of the art ExSilent technology. It is your personal sound amplifier The VTech CS6719 can be bought for under $50 for 2 sets. In addition to being cheap, due to durability and high quality, it is one of the best cordless phones for senior citizens and pensioners in 2020. But, we do not recommend this landline telephone set for seniors with severe hearing loss. If affordability is the main concern, this is the

    Fortunately, there are some iOS features that can help increase the iPhone's usability for individuals with hearing impairments, and Apple itself wants people to know about them. That's not to say medca Digital Hearing Amplifier - Personal Hearing Enhancement Sound Amplifier Pair, Rechargeable Digital Hearing Amplifier with All-D. Sold by TheSavingsMart . $40.55 $36.84. MegFong MF-02B Large Button Phone for Elderly Senior Amplified Corded Phone with Speakerphone for Hearing Impaired. Sold by GrowKart. $37.97 $34.50. TelPal Big Button Corded Phone for Elderly Caller ID Landline Telephone

    We supply phones made by leading global brands Geemarc, Doro and Amplicomms. Manufacturers who are all committed to the provision of amplified products. All phones include a full manufacturer's warranty of 12 - 24 months. Read more on our blog: The Best Amplified Phones for Seniors; Best Phone for the Hard of Hearing. Doro Phones Google releases two new accessibility apps for hearing-impaired Android users Sound Amplifier and Live Transcribe may make life easier for the disabled.

    Hear World Communications. 21004 Brooke Knolls Rd Laytonsville, MD 20882 Voice/TTY: (866) 889-4872. Hear World Communications is a leading distributor of assistive technology devices for deaf, hard of hearing, hearing impaired, and individuals with hearing loss. Shopping for a phone for the hard of hearing can be a confusing experience with many factors to consider. If you are unsure of what type of phone will best suit your needs, please read on because we have put together a guide to help you find what will work best for you or someone you are shopping for.

    If you've set the volume on your phone as high as it'll go and voices still sound faint, you may want to consider a device for hearing-impaired telephones called a phone amplifier. Several options are available, including units that attach to a phone line, portable amplifier units and dedicated amplifier telephones, as well as cell phone Hearing impaired phones... Amplified phones you may benefit from using a telephone amplifier, which is a separate device that increases the volume of a regular landline or mobile phone. In-line amplifiers . Compatible with many types of phone models, in-line telephone amplifiers are best for people with moderate to severe hearing loss. These devices increase sound by up to 40 decibels, and

    phone amplifier for hearing impaired reviews

    Hearing impaired phones... Amplified phones you may benefit from using a telephone amplifier, which is a separate device that increases the volume of a regular landline or mobile phone. In-line amplifiers . Compatible with many types of phone models, in-line telephone amplifiers are best for people with moderate to severe hearing loss. These devices increase sound by up to 40 decibels, and Hearing impaired phones... Amplified phones you may benefit from using a telephone amplifier, which is a separate device that increases the volume of a regular landline or mobile phone. In-line amplifiers . Compatible with many types of phone models, in-line telephone amplifiers are best for people with moderate to severe hearing loss. These devices increase sound by up to 40 decibels, and